Toraja are an ethnic group indigenous to the mountains of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Where in South Sulawesi but people / tribe there are also people Toraja Bugis, Mandar, and Makassar. Their population is 650 000 people, 450 000 of whom still live in Tana Toraja ( "Land of Toraja"). Most of the population is Christian, the remainder being Muslim or animist, according to the belief system known Aluk ( "path"). The Indonesian government has recognized this animist beliefs known as Aluk To Dolo, "the way of the ancestors."
According to the myth of the Toraja ancestor was a man who came from paradise myth remains legendary to this day hereditary orally among the Toraja people are told that the ancestors of the Toraja people who first used the "ladder of heaven" to come down from paradise, which then serves as a medium of communication with Puang Matua (God Almighty - the language of Toraja).
Another version of DR. C. CYRUT an anthropologist, in his research said that people Tanah Toraja is the result of the acculturation process among the local population inhabiting the mainland of South Sulawesi with that in fact immigrants are immigrants from the Gulf Tongkin (daratanTiongkok). The process of acculturation between the two societies, immigrants came from Indochina with berlabuhnya considerable amount around the predicted upstream regions located in Enrekang, then these immigrants, to build settlements in the area.
Toraja word derives from the Bugis language "to RIAJ," which means "people from the highlands. Dutch colonial government to name the Toraja people in the year 1909. Toraja known for its elaborate funeral rites, burial place they carved the rocky cliffs, traditional houses with large roof top tongkonan known, and wood carvings, colorful. Toraja funeral is an important social activity the last few days and that hundreds of people normally attend.
Aluk is a cultural regime that was brought by immigrants from the plains of Indochina at about 3000 years to 500 years BC.Usually associated with Aluk indigenous Toraja beliefs are still embraced by some of the Toraja people today. One example of a habit that is still held by the adherents Aluk is not eating rice at the ceremony sign solo '.
Important figure in the spread of this Aluk include: Tomanurun Tamboro Langi 'which is the bearer Aluk Saratu binding Sanda adherents in limited areas of Lembangna Tallu region. Important figure in the spread of this Aluk in western Tana Toraja, namely: Pongkapadang with Burake Tattiu 'that spread to the region Bonggakaradeng, some Saluputti, Simbuang arrive at Salu Ulunna Pitu Minanga Ba'bana Karua, introducing to the local community of a social order called the Toraja language "to unnirui 'suke pa'pa, to ungkandei kandian saratu social institutions which are not known strata.
In the eastern area of Tana Toraja, Pasontik with Burake spread to areas Tambolang Pitung Pananaian, Rantebua, Tangdu, Ranteballa, Ta'bi, tabang, Luwu Maindo to the south and north by introducing a social institution called the Toraja language: "To Unnirui 'suke dibonga, To unkandei kandean pindan ", ie social institutions that make up the governance of community life in the three social strata. Tangdilino with spreading Aluk Burake Tangngana to the central region of Tana Toraja with social institutions "To unniru'i suke dibonga, ungkande To kandean pindan".
The entire month of Tana Lepongan Tondok Matari 'Allo (Tana Toraja region) bound by one rule known as Tana Moon Lepongan Tondok Matari' Allo which literally means "Negri's round like the moon and sun". This name has a significant background, the community as a whole country round from various indigenous regions. This is due to Tana Toraja is never governed by a single ruler, but the territory area of indigenous groups are governed by their respective adat and there are about 32 in Toraja adat.
Because the union and the unity of the indigenous groups, the union's name diberilah circular or round tied in a single view of life and belief as binding the whole region and the indigenous groups.
In Tanah Toraja region there are two ceremonies are very popular, namely traditional ceremonies Rambu Solo '(for the funeral ceremony) with the Sweep Randanan and Tombi Saratu and Ma'nene, and Tuka Rambu ceremonies. Traditional ceremonies mentioned above both Rambu Tuka 'and Rambu Solo' followed by the art of dance and music typical Toraja diverse variety.
Is a customary funeral which requires that the deceased's family made a party as a sign of their last respects to the deceased who had left.
Solo Signs ceremony is divided into several levels, which refers to the social strata of society Toraja, namely:
• Installed Bongi: A funeral is only implemented in one night.
• Dipatallung Bongi: A funeral that lasted for three nights and be home late and made slaughterhouses.
• Dipalimang Bongi: A funeral that lasted for five nights and carried around the house late and done slaughterhouses.
• Dipapitung Bongi: The funeral, which lasted for seven nights on a daily basis do slaughterhouses.
Various cultural activities are also shown interest in this ceremony, among others:
• Ma'pasilaga tedong (Adu buffalo), the buffalo is a buffalo typical pitted Tana Toraja has characteristics of having horns bent down or [balukku ', sokko] who skinned striped (tedang Bonga), Bonga in Toraja tedong very high value price to hundreds of millions; Sisemba '(Adu feet)
• Dance dance ritual associated with solo signs 'such as: Pa'Badong, Pa'Dondi, Pa'Randing, Pa'Katia, Pa'papanggan, Passailo and Pa'pasilaga Tedong; Next to the art of music: Pa'pompang, Pa' dali-dali and Unnosong.;
• Ma'tinggoro tedong (withholding water buffalo with a typical Toraja community, namely by cutting buffalo with a machete and TEBAS only once), usually buffalo to be slaughtered was moored at a rock called Stone Simbuang.
Bonga Tedong buffalo is buffalo belong to the mud (Burbalus bubalis) is an endemic species found only in Tana Toraja. The difficulty of breeding and a tendency to cut as many in traditional ceremonies make germplasm (genetic resources) that native endangered.
Toward the ceremony usainya Rambu Solo ', the family of the late obliged thanked the Creator that both marks the completion of the funeral Rambu Solo'.
Signs ceremonial Tuka 'is the event assosiated with celebration event such as a wedding , the inauguration celebration of harvest and custom homes / new tongkonan, or a complete renovation; bring all the family grove, of this event makes the bond of kinship in Tana Toraja is very strong all the Ceremony These are known by the name Ma'Bua ', Meroek, or Mangrara Banua Sura'.
For ceremonial Rambu Tuka 'followed by the art of dance: Pa' Gellu, Pa 'Boneballa, Gellu Tungga', Ondo Samalele, Pa'Dao Moon, Pa'Burake, Memanna, Maluya, Pa'Tirra ', Panimbong and others. For the art of music is Pa'pompang, pa'Barrung, Pa'pelle '. Music and dances presented at a ceremony Rambu Solo 'should not be ((taboo) is displayed at the ceremony Rambu Tuka'.
Some areas currently cemetery has become a tourist attraction, as in:
• Londa, which is an ancient cemetery in a cave, one can find dozens of rows in erong rocks that have been hollowed out, skulls were strewn on the stone indicates the coffin had been damaged in eating age. Londa is located in the village of UAI Sandan District Sanggalai 'at a distance of 7 km from Rantepao, directions to the South, natural caves are filled with an amazing panorama 1000 meters deep in, can be enjoyed with a guide who has been trained guides and professional.
• Lemo is one of the Toraja ancestor's grave, which is a grave nature that carved in the sixteenth century or the local called Liang Paa '. Number of holes there are 75 ancient stone fruit and tau-tau an upright standing some 40 fruit as symbols of prestige, status, role and position of the nobles in the village of Lemo. Lemo named because of this rock pit model that resembles a round orange spots.
• Allo look that is a natural cave graves located in Kelurahan Sangalla 'and contains dozens of Erong, tens of Tau-tau, and hundreds of skulls and human bones. In the sixteenth century by the rulers Sangalla 'in this case the Puang Manturino with his wife chose Bualaan Rangga Allo cave looking for burial place later if they died, as the realization of the promise and oath of husband and wife "as lively as dead one buried us both". Goa looks Alllo is 19 km from Kruger National Park and 12 km from Makale.
• Liang cemetery location Tondon nobles or the nobles in the region lie Balusu consisting of 12 holes.
• To'Doyan is a large tree used as the tomb of a baby (the child who has not a tooth). This tree is naturally gives the roots regularly pell grow to form cavities. Cavity is used as a place to store a dead baby.
• Massangka Pong Patane (shaped wooden grave Toraja house) which was built in 1930 to a widow named Palindatu who died in 1920 and customary diupacarakan highest Toraja called Rapasan Sweep Randanan. Massangka pong Ne'Babu named 'buried in this Patane. tau-taunya made of chiseled stone. The distance is 9 km from the Kruger National Park north.
• Ta'pan ledge which means palace eagles. In the XVII century Ta'pan ledge used as a tomb by a family of 5 including the Toraja tribe and Belolangi Place '. This ancient tomb located in the village of Batu Rinding and has many tau-tau as a symbol of prestige and glory of the nobles of the past in the village of Toraja Rinding Batut. In the traditional Toraja society, every family has two types of pliers tongkonan merambu for humans who have died. Ledge including category Ta'pan tongkonan merambu a distance of about 1.5 km from the axis of Makale-Rantepao road and is also equipped with a stunning panorama of nature.
• Sipore 'which means "meeting" is one of the cemetery which is the archaeological site, where people make the grave by hanging on the cliff or rock. Location 2 km from the axis of the road Makale-Rantepao.
Place of Burial Customs
Rante is a traditional funeral is equipped with a stone Menhir / Megalit the Toraja language is called Simbuang stone. In one Rante, Menhir stone blades 102 feet with a grand. Menhir is composed of a large size 24 blades, 24 blade medium, and small size of the blade 54. Menhir size has the same traditional values, the difference is only a difference factor of the circumstances at the time of making / taking stones.
This stone Simbuang held only if the dead are community leaders and a ceremony is held in rapasan sapurandanan level. During the ceremony was cut at least 24 water buffaloes.Tau-tau is a statue depicting the deceased. At the funeral of the nobility or the authorities / community leaders one element rapasan (complement traditional ceremonial events), is making tau-tau. Tau-tau is made of jackfruit wood is strong and when logging is customary. Eyes of tau-tau is made of bone and buffalo horn. Once upon a time, tau-tau does not exactly describe the chiseled visage of the late but lately craftsmen carving skills growing up to be able to make exactly the visage of the late.